Dionysos Ģenlikleri (Maenadizm): Maenadizm, Dionysos onuruna düzenlenen coĢku dolu kült Ģenliklerde25 yer alan kadınlar grubunun sergiledikleri performanstır. Maenadlar topluluğu (Maenadik thiasos) rolü ise bu Ģenliklerde satyr rolü üstlenen erkeklere eĢlik eden kadınların oluĢturduğu gruptur (Seaford 1998: 128). Dionysos gizemlerinde de kadınların26 özel bir yeri ve görevleri vardır. Bu gizemli Ģenliklerde Tanrı Dionysos‟un dostları yani diğer bir anlamla doğanın ruhları olarak algılanabilecek varlıklar da bulunmaktadır ve bunlar kadınlar tarafından canlandırılmaktadırlar. Tanrıdan esinlenip mistik bir delilik halinde çığlıklar atarak kırlarda dolaĢan, pınarlardan su yerine bal ya da süt içen Bacchalar (Maniaslar), törenlerde kadınlar tarafından canlandırılmaktadır ve kadınlar çıplak bedenlerini ceylan postlarıyla örtüp (nebris), baĢlarına sarmaĢıktan bir taç takmaktadırlar. Ellerine ucunda bir çam kozalağı takılı sarmaĢık ya da asma yapraklarıyla sarılı bir değnek (thyrsos) alarak, iki kulplu büyük Ģarap kupalarıyla (kantharos) dolaĢmakta ve çift borulu flütlerin ezgileriyle ya da teflerden yayılan seslerle dans etmektedirler. (DürüĢken 2000: 93)
Çoğu kez sadece inisiye olanların katılabildiği Dionysos adına yapılan bu törenlerde korolar, pandomim gösterileri gibi modern tiyatronun da kökenlendirildiği eylemler, Ģarap içimi ve cinsel eylemler bulunmaktadır. Bireyin cinsel yaĢamının baĢlangıcı ile Dionysos kültüne giriĢin aynı anda gerçekleĢtiği düĢünüldüğünde kadınların bu kültlere katılımı kaçınılmazdır. (Eliade 2003: 439; Seaford 1998: 129)
Dionysos bayramlarının ana görüntüsüne sparagmos adı verilmektedir ve anlamı da canlı bir hayvanın parçalanması, etinin yenmesi ve kanının içilmesidir.27 Bu eylemlerde Dionysos‟un Titanlar tarafından parçalanmasına öykünülür ve tapınıcılar, gerçekten tanrının etini yediklerini, kanını içtiklerini düĢünmeleriyle Tanrıyla bütünleĢme hissiyatını yaĢamaktadırlar. Eliade‟ye göre geceleri, kentlerden uzakta, dağlarda ve ormanlarda gerçekleĢtirilen bu ritüellerde “kurbanın parçalanarak öldürülmesi (sparagmos) ve çiğ et yenmesi (ömofagia) yoluyla, tanrıyla ruh birliği gerçekleĢtirilmektedir; çünkü parçalanan ve çiğ çiğ yenen hayvanlar Dionysos‟un epafanileri veya bedenlenmiĢ halleridir ve diğer bütün deneyimler –olağanüstü fiziksel güç, ateĢ ve silahlarla yaralanmama, “mucizeler” (yerden fıĢkıran su, Ģarap, süt), yılanlarla ve vahĢi hayvan yavrularıyla “yakınlık”- yaĢanan bu tanrısal coĢku hali ve tanrıyla özdeĢleĢme sayesinde mümkün olabilmektedir. Dionysosçu esrime her Ģeyden önce insanlık halinin aĢılması, tam kurtuluĢun keĢfi, insanlığın eriĢemediği bir kendiliğindenliğin ve özgürlüğün elde edilmesidir. Bu özgürlüklerin içinde, etik ve sosyal nitelikteki yasaklardan, kurallardan ve sözleĢmelerden kurtulmak da mutlaka yer almaktadır ve bu durum da kadınların kitlesel katılımını açıklamaktadır. (Eliade 2003: 444)
bunlar cogul adlarıyla maenadlar diye gecer terminolojide. dionysos tarafından ritüel cılgınlıga garkedilmi$ bahtsız kadınlardır. her iki yılda bir kı$ın göbeende, hellasın sarp daglarında maenadik törenler vuku bulmaktaydı. bunlar, cogunlukla üst sınıftan kadınlardı. * * törensel bicimde kentten beraber ayrılır, daglara dogru cıglık ata ata * ilerler; menzile eri$ince ayakkabıyı atar, sacları dagıtır, geyik derisi kıyafetlerinden bünyeyi uzakla$tırırlardı. * kurban törenini müteakip, tympanon ve aulos esliginde gece danslarına yelken acarlardı. yüksek volümlü müzigin ve me$alelerin de etkisiyle, cılgınca danseder, kafalarını sallar *, zıplar, hoplar, ko$u$turup euhoi diye bagırırlardı afacanlar. euripidesin bacchae adlı oyununda hayvanları cıplak elle parcalayan, yılanla oynayan, cig et yiyen ancak demir ve ate$e dayanıklı delirmisler gibi anlatılsa da, olasılıkla yazarın zamanında meanadlar cig et yemeyen, yılana yüz vermeyen kadınlardı. fakat ayin sırasındaki trans durumundan ötürü acıya dayanıklı olmaları da mümkün bittabi. mit, elbette ki gercegi abartmaktadır bu noktada.
Batı Sanatında Adam Parçalayan Kadınlar
Maenadlar’ın Yunan mitolojisinde çeteler halinde dolaşıp zaman zaman neşe içinde adam (erkek, bey, bay) parçaladıkları anlatılıyor.
Maenad’ın kelime anlamı: ÇILDIRANLAR.
Bu mitolojik hikayeler yıllar boyunca Batı sanatında şöyle resmedilmiş:
Oraklarla saldırmak yetmeeeez, birimiz mutlaka arkada zil çalmalı
Bu bağırsakların hali ne evladım?
Kızlar haftaya gene yapalım yaaa
Çekiyor musun? Bi saniye leopar da çıksın
BAŞLATMA. CİNSİYETÇİ. PRATİĞİNE.
Bu kumaşlar nasıl böyle duruyor BİZ DE BİLMİYORUZ
Gırgıriye’de Cümbüş Var M.Ö. 400
bir sylvia plath şiiri:
once i was ordinary:
sat by my father's bean tree
eating the fingers of wisdom.
the birds made milk.
when it thundered i hid under a flat stone.
the mother of mouths didn't love me.
the old man shrank to a doll.
o i am too big to go backward:
birdmilk is feathers,
the bean leaves are dumb as hands.
this month is fit for little.
the dead ripen in the grapeleaves.
a red tongue is among us.
mother, keep out of my barnyard,
i am becoming another.
feed me the berries of dark.
the lids won't shut. time
unwinds from the great umbilicus of the sun
its endless glitter.
i must swallow it all.
lady, who are these others in the moon's vat ---
sleepdrunk, their limbs at odds?
in this light the blood is black.
tell me my name.
One of the greatest aspects of ancient Greek civilization was the persistent belief that there was nothing women liked better to do than assemble a gang, air their tits out, and roam the countryside beating men to death. This was, sadly, a myth, but it did not stop generations of European painters from imagining what savage bands of female murderesses might have looked like.
The Venn diagram of “female devotees of Dionysus who savagely tear apart Orpheus” and “parties I would love to attend” has an overlap of roughly 100%.
This is a fitting end for a man known for strolling about the ancient world playing unasked-for lyre solos at everyone. Look at how fun these stabbing bitches seem. Long, lush hair and sturdy biceps and leopard skins abound.
They’ve already ripped off the entire lower half of Pentheus’ body and they are not calling it a day. Gotta rip up the top half too. The official word for “Dionysus-crazed women ripping men and animals limb from limb,” by the way, is sparagmos. The ancient Greeks had a NAME for what happened when women tore men to pieces! Truly it was called the Golden Age of Civilization for a reason.
SMASH HIS HEAD OFF GIRL, HEADS ARE FOR WOMEN, THIS IS WHAT A FEMINIST LOOKS LIKE (SMASHING A MAN’S HEAD OFF WITH A ROCK)
True beauty is a severe brow, a no-nonsense haircut, and an armful of male limbs you’re about to rip off someone’s torso. That’s what Real Women look like.
Charlotte Corday actually did murder a man in real life – and by herself, too, sans sororal mob – but I think she still deserves to be included because of how beautiful the fabric on her murderin’ gown is.
How did all these French painters know exactly what Charlotte Corday was wearing that day? Either way, she looked amazing.
ON WEDNESDAYS WE PULL OUR DRESSES DOWN TO THE WAIST AND KILL MEN
someone get his harp, men cannot be killed unless you also destroy the instrument they were trying to play at you
Sometimes it’s best to stick with the basics: enormous, pointy sticks you use to alternately bludgeon and skewer a man in the woods with your best girlfriend.
WRAP YOURSELF IN SNAKES AND LEAVES AND BRING YOUR SHARPEST MURDERING SCYTHE, IT’S TIME FOR A GOOD OLD-FASHIONED GIRLS’ NIGHT OUT
Nobody’s murdering his left leg! Get in the game, Red Cloak!
The Difference Between A Good Friend And A Best Friend:
A good friend will hold your scabbard while you use your short sword to murder a male stranger.
A best friend won’t have any hands free to hold your scabbard because she’ll be too busy grabbing him by the cloak and jabbing him with a stick.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Often the maenads were portrayed as inspired by Dionysus into a state of ecstatic frenzy through a combination of dancing and intoxication. During these rites, the maenads would dress in fawn skins and carry a thyrsus, a long stick wrapped in ivy or vine leaves and tipped with a pinecone. They would weave ivy-wreaths around their heads or wear a bull helmet in honor of their god, and often handle or wear snakes.
These women were mythologized as the 'mad women' who were nurses of Dionysus in Nysa: Lycurgus "chased the Nurses of the frenzied Dionysus through the holy hills of Nysa, and the sacred implements dropped to the ground from the hands of one and all, as the murderous Lycurgus struck them down with his ox-goad." They went into the mountains at night and practised strange rites.
In Euripides' play The Bacchae, maenads of Thebes, Greece murdered King Pentheus after he banned the worship of Dionysus. Dionysus, Pentheus' cousin, himself lured Pentheus to the woods, where the maenads tore him apart. His corpse was mutilated by his own mother, Agave, who tore off his head, believing it to be that of a lion. A group of maenads also killed Orpheus.
In ceramic art, the frolicking of maenads and Dionysus is often a theme depicted on kraters, used to mix water and wine. These scenes show the maenads in their frenzy running in the forests, often tearing to pieces any animal they happen to come across.
German philologist Walter Friedrich Otto writes:
The Bacchae of Euripides gives us the most vital picture of the wonderful circumstance in which, as Plato says in the Ion, the god-intoxicated celebrants draw milk and honey from the streams. They strike rocks with the thyrsus, and water gushes forth. They lower the thyrsus to the earth, and a spring of wine bubbles up. If they want milk, they scratch up the ground with their fingers and draw up the milky fluid. Honey trickles down from the thyrsus made of the wood of the ivy, they gird themselves with snakes and give suck to fawns and wolf cubs as if they were infants at the breast. Fire does not burn them. No weapon of iron can wound them, and the snakes harmlessly lick up the sweat from their heated cheeks. Fierce bulls fall to the ground, victims to numberless, tearing female hands, and sturdy trees are torn up by the roots with their combined efforts.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2010)|
Nurses and nymphsThe name maenad has come to be associated with a wide variety of women, supernatural, mythological, and historical, associated with the god Dionysus and his worship. In the realm of the supernatural is the category of nymphs who nurse and care for the young Dionysus, and continue in his worship as he comes of age. The god Hermes is said to have carried the young Dionysus to the nymphs of Nysa.
In another myth, when his mother, Semele, is killed, the care of young Dionysus falls into the hands of his sisters, Ino, Agave, and Autonoe, who later are depicted as participating in the rites and taking a leadership role among the other maenads.
Resisters to the new religion
This also occurs with the three daughters of Minyas, who reject Dionysus and remain true to their household duties, becoming startled by invisible drums, flutes, cymbals, and seeing ivy hanging down from their looms. As punishment for their resistance, they become madwomen, choosing the child of one of their number by lot and tearing it to pieces, as the women on the mountain did to young animals. A similar story with a tragic end is told of the daughters of Proetus.
Voluntary revelersNot all women were inclined to resist the call of Dionysus, however. Maenads, possessed by the spirit of Dionysus, traveled with him from Thrace to mainland Greece in his quest for the recognition of his divinity. Dionysus was said to have danced down from Parnassos accompanied by Delphic virgins, and it is known that even as young girls the women in Boeotia practiced not only the closed rites but also the bearing of the thyrsos and the dances.
The foundation myth is believed to have been reenacted every other year during the Agronia. Here the women of Thebes were organized into three dance groups and rushed off to Mount Cithaeron with ritual cries of "to the mountain!" As "mad women," they pursued and killed, perhaps by dismemberment (sparagmos), the 'king', possibly represented by a goat. The maenads may have eaten the meat of the goat raw (omophagia) or sacrificed it to Dionysus. Eventually the women would be freed from the madness and return to Thebes and their usual lives, but for the time of the festival they would have had an intense ecstatic experience. The Agrionia was celebrated in several Greek cities, but especially in Boeotia. Each Boeotian city had its own distinct foundation myth for it, but the pattern was much the same: the arrival of Dionysus, resistance to him, flight of the women to a mountain, the killing of Dionysus’ persecutor, and eventual reconciliation with the god.
Priestesses of Dionysus
Other groupsThe names of other associations of women who can be characterized as maenads are the Laphystiai, the Dionysiades, the Leucippides, the Bassarai, the Dysmainai, the Klodones, and the Mimallones. The memory of the Thyiades and of their cymbals, which people thought they heard, was still alive in the vicinity of Mt. Parnassos at the beginning of [the 20th] century. For the peasants the Thyiades had become Neraides, ghost women, of whom folk stood in awe believing that they possessed a power which Dionysus himself possessed.
Further information: BacchanaliaCultic rites associated with worship of the Greek god of wine, Dionysus (or Bacchus in Roman mythology), were allegedly characterized by maniacal dancing to the sound of loud music and crashing cymbals, in which the revellers, called Bacchantes, whirled, screamed, became drunk and incited one another to greater and greater ecstasy. The goal was to achieve a state of enthusiasm in which the celebrants’ souls were temporarily freed from their earthly bodies and were able to commune with Bacchus/Dionysus and gain a glimpse of and a preparation for what they would someday experience in eternity. The rite climaxed in a performance of frenzied feats of strength and madness, such as uprooting trees, tearing a bull (the symbol of Dionysus) apart with their bare hands, an act called sparagmos, and eating its flesh raw, an act called omophagia. This latter rite was a sacrament akin to communion in which the participants assumed the strength and character of the god by symbolically eating the raw flesh and drinking the blood of his symbolic incarnation. Having symbolically eaten his body and drunk his blood, the celebrants became possessed by Dionysus.
MythsDionysus came to his birthplace, Thebes, where neither Pentheus, his cousin who was now king, nor Pentheus’ mother Agave, Dionysus’ aunt (Semele’s sister) acknowledged his divinity. Dionysus punished Agave by driving her insane, and in that condition, she killed her son and tore him to pieces. From Thebes, Dionysus went to Argos where all the women except the daughters of King Proetus joined in his worship. Dionysus punished them by driving them mad, and they killed the infants who were nursing at their breasts. He did the same to the daughters of Minyas, King of Orchomenos in Boetia, and then turned them into bats.
Once during a war in the middle of the third century BC, the entranced Thyiades (maenads) lost their way and arrived in Amphissa, a city near Delphi. There they sank down exhausted in the market place and were overpowered by a deep sleep. The women of Amphissa formed a protective ring around them and when they awoke arranged for them to return home unmolested.
On another occasion, the Thyiades were snowed in on Parnassos and it was necessary to send a rescue party. The clothing of the men who took part in the rescue froze solid. It is unlikely that the Thyiades, even if they wore deerskins over their shoulders, were ever dressed more warmly than the men.
ArtMaenads have been depicted in art as erratic and frenzied women enveloped in a drunken rapture, the most obvious example being that of Euripides’ play The Bacchae. His play, however, is not a study of the cult of Dionysus or the effects of this religious hysteria of these women. The maenads have often been interpreted in art in this way. To understand the play of Euripides though one must only know about the religious ecstasy called Dionysiac, the most common moment maenads are displayed in art. In Euripides' play and other art forms and works the Dionysiac only needs to be understood as the frenzied dances of the god which are direct manifestations of euphoric possession and that these worshippers, sometimes by eating the flesh of a man or animal who has temporarily incarnated the god, come to partake of his divinity.
In addition to Euripedes' The Bacchae, depictions of maenads are often found on both red and black figure Greek pottery, statues and jewellery. Also, fragments of reliefs of female worshippers of Dionysus have been discovered at Corinth. Mark W. Edwards in his paper "Representation of Maenads on Archaic Red-Figure Vases" traces the evolution of maenad's depictions on Red-Figure vases. Edwards distinguishes between "nymphs" which appear earlier on Greek pottery and "maenads" which are identified by their characteristic fawnskin or "nebris" and often carrying snakes in their hands. However, Edwards does not consider the actions of the figures on the pottery to be a distinguishing characteristic for differentiation between maenads and nymphs. Rather, the differences or similarities in their actions are more striking when comparing black-figure and red-figure pottery, as opposed to maenads and nymphs.
Statue of a sleeping Maenad, lying on a panther skin spread on a rocky surface; the type is known as the reclining Hermaphrodite; Pentelic marble; found at the south of the Athenian Acropolis; Hadrianic time (117-138 AD), follows a classical trend in the attic art; National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Ring with the engraved representation of a maenad. Ancient Greek artwork, 3rd–2nd century BC. Louvre, Paris.
Dance of the Maenad, by Cornelis Lens
A Bacchante, by John Reinhard Weguelin
A Bacchante, by William Etty
In Ivan Turgenev's novella, First Love, bacchantes are used symbolically in a dream of princess Zinaida.
The Bassarids (composed 1964-65, premiere 1966), to a libretto by W. H. Auden and Chester Kallman, is the most famous opera composed by Hans Werner Henze.
Maenads, along with Bacchus and Silenus, appear in C. S. Lewis' Prince Caspian. They are portrayed as wild, fierce girls who dance and perform somersaults.
Alluded to in the short story "Las Ménades", by Julio Cortázar, originally published in Final del juego, 1956, the Menades do not appear and are not specifically mentioned in the story, which is a description of an evening concert of classical music. The narrator, although a fan of the conductor, does not react emotionally to the music but he notes the many others, particularly females, who become overwhelmed. At the end of the concert, they riot with emotion surging onto the stage and overtaking the conductor and the musicians.
Maenads are the primary symbol of the city of Tetovo depicted prominently of the city's coat of arms. The inclusion of maenad imagery dates to 1932, when a small 6th-century BC statuette of a maenad was found within the city. The "Tetovo Maenad" was also featured on the reverse side of the Macedonian 5000 denars banknote issued in 1996.
In Fables & Reflections, the seventh volume of Neil Gaiman's comic series The Sandman, the maenads feature in the story Orpheus, in which they gruesomely murder the titular character after he refuses to cavort with them (echoing the events of the actual Greek myth of Orpheus).
In the horror novel Dominion by Bentley Little, maenads are eventually revealed as the main antagonists for the first half of the story, during which they tear their victims to shreds and conspire to reawaken Dionysus.
Charlaine Harris' The Southern Vampire Mysteries series of novels and its television adaptation, the HBO series True Blood (2nd season, aired in summer 2009), feature maenads in the characters of Callisto and her television representation, Maryann, respectively. In the show, Maryann wishes to sacrifice Sam Merlotte in hopes of summoning her god, Dionysus. In the TV series, Maryann is portrayed by Michelle Forbes.
In the Buffy the Vampire Slayer novel Go Ask Malice: A Slayer's Diary, maenads are depicted as corrupted human beings in service of the ancient and powerful Greek vampire Kakistos, whose name means in Greek "the worst", the natural superlative of kakos meaning "bad".
The Maenads appear in Rick Riordan's The Demigod Diaries, where they are the principal enemies in the story "Leo Valdez and the Quest for Buford." While looking for the automaton table, Buford, Leo, Jason, and Piper run into the Maenads, who are searching for Dionysus. They chase Leo and Piper into Bunker 9, and are subsequently tricked into being captured in a golden net.
They also make an appearance in the second episode of Atlantis "A Girl By Any Other Name".
The Japanese cosmetics company Nippon Menard Cosmetic Co. is named after them.